Measured Data

Specific Heat

Experiments for specific heat [J/(kg K)], or heat capacity, were conducted using a heat flow meter on unconditioned and dried samples at 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C.

Unconditioned

Temperature (C) Specific Heat Mean (J/kg-K) Standard Deviation (J/kg-K)
10.0 992.0 19.0
20.0 1027.0 27.0
30.0 1071.0 21.0
40.0 1096.0 26.0

Thermal Conductivity

Experiments for thermal conductivity [W/(m K)] were conducted using a heat flow meter on unconditioned and dried samples at 15 °C and either 45 °C or 65 °C.

Unconditioned

Temperature (C) Conductivity Mean (W/m-K) Standard Deviation (W/m-K)
15.0 0.085 0.003
45.0 0.098 0.002

Mass Loss Rate (MLR)

Initial-mass-normalized mass loss rate [1/s] was measured in the simultaneous thermal analyzer experiments at three heating rates: 3 K/min, 10 K/min, and 30 K/min and mass loss rate [g/s] in the cone calorimeter at three heat fluxes: 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer

Cone Calorimeter: 25 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 50 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 75 kW/m2

Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area (HRRPUA)

Experiments for heat release per unit area [kW/m2] were conducted on samples conditioned at 20°C and 50% relative humidity using a cone calorimeter at three different heat fluxes: 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Cone Calorimeter: 25 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 50 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 75 kW/m2

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Yield

Carbon monoxide yield was measured during cone calorimeter experiments conducted at heat fluxes of 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Incident Heat Flux [kW/m²] Mean CO Yield [g/g] CO Yield Std. Dev. [g/g]
25 0.05 0.008
50 0.05 0.017
75 0.061 0.001

Derived Data

Soot Yield

Soot yield [g/g] was calculated from smoke obscuration data collected in cone calorimeter experiments conducted at heat fluxes of 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Incident Heat Flux [kW/m²] Mean Soot Yield [g/g] Soot Yield Std. Dev. [g/g]
25 0.164 0.017
50 0.086 0.026
75 0.097 0.006

Effective Heat of Combustion (Δhc)

Effective heat of combustion [MJ/kg] is calculated from data collected in cone calorimeter experiments.

Cone Calorimeter

Incident Heat Flux [kW/m²] Mean Effective Heat of Combustion [MJ/kg] Effective Heat of Combustion Std. Dev. [MJ/kg]
25 8.4 1.1
50 10.0 1.0
75 10.5 0.3

Band Averaged Emissivity

Band averaged emissivity was calculated from reflectance measurements conducted with an integrating sphere and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

Source Temperature [K] Emissivity Std. Dev.
600.0 0.953 0.001
800.0 0.936 0.002
1000.0 0.907 0.003
1200.0 0.871 0.006
1400.0 0.834 0.009
1600.0 0.801 0.012
1800.0 0.773 0.015
2000.0 0.749 0.017