Measured Data

Specific Heat

Experiments for specific heat [J/(kg K)], or heat capacity, were conducted using a heat flow meter on unconditioned and dried samples at 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C.

Unconditioned

Temperature (C) Specific Heat Mean (J/kg-K) Standard Deviation (J/kg-K)
10.0 1539.0 63.0
20.0 1629.0 40.0
30.0 1696.0 69.0
40.0 1743.0 44.0

Dried

Temperature (C) Specific Heat Mean (J/kg-K) Standard Deviation (J/kg-K)
10.0 1426.0 26.0
20.0 1496.0 28.0
30.0 1544.0 19.0
40.0 1583.0 31.0

Thermal Conductivity

Experiments for thermal conductivity [W/(m K)] were conducted using a heat flow meter on unconditioned and dried samples at 15 °C and either 45 °C or 65 °C.

Unconditioned

Temperature (C) Conductivity Mean (W/m-K) Standard Deviation (W/m-K)
15.0 0.051 0.003
45.0 0.058 0.003

Dried

Temperature (C) Conductivity Mean (W/m-K) Standard Deviation (W/m-K)
15.0 0.050 0.001
45.0 0.057 0.002

Mass Loss Rate (MLR)

Mass loss rate [kg/s] was measured in cone calorimeter experiments at three heat fluxes: 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Cone Calorimeter: 25 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 50 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 75 kW/m2

Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area (HRRPUA)

Experiments for heat release per unit area [kW/m2] were conducted on samples conditioned at 20°C and 50% relative humidity using a cone calorimeter at three different heat fluxes: 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Cone Calorimeter: 25 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 50 kW/m2

Cone Calorimeter: 75 kW/m2

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Yield

Carbon monoxide yield was measured during cone calorimeter experiments conducted at heat fluxes of 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Incident Heat Flux [kW/m²] Mean CO Yield [g/g] CO Yield Std. Dev. [g/g]
25 0.034 0.003
50 0.042 0.002
75 0.048 0.003

Derived Data

Soot Yield

Soot yield [g/g] was calculated from smoke obscuration data collected in cone calorimeter experiments conducted at heat fluxes of 25 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2, and 75 kW/m2.

Incident Heat Flux [kW/m²] Mean Soot Yield [g/g] Soot Yield Std. Dev. [g/g]
25 0.068 0.003
50 0.067 0.002
75 0.059 0.013

Effective Heat of Combustion (Δhc)

Effective heat of combustion [MJ/kg] is calculated from data collected in cone calorimeter experiments.

Cone Calorimeter

Incident Heat Flux [kW/m²] Mean Effective Heat of Combustion [MJ/kg] Effective Heat of Combustion Std. Dev. [MJ/kg]
25 27.4 0.5
50 27.3 2.3
75 28.4 0.4

Band Averaged Emissivity

Band averaged emissivity was calculated from reflectance measurements conducted with an integrating sphere and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

Source Temperature [K] Emissivity Std. Dev.
600.0 0.942 0.001
800.0 0.930 0.001
1000.0 0.917 0.002
1200.0 0.903 0.003
1400.0 0.890 0.004
1600.0 0.880 0.005
1800.0 0.872 0.006
2000.0 0.866 0.006